By 2030, carbon dioxide removals are responsibly scaled to remove 3.5 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. 500 million tonnes of this must be stored for at least 100 years.

What is Carbon Dioxide Removal, why do it and how to do it right? Why 3.5 billion tonnes per year?

Acknowledging the organisations working towards this future


How a diverse portfolio of carbon dioxide removals solutions can scale both small and big solutions across all regions.

Every region on Earth has the capacity to remove CO2 from the atmosphere and provide various co-benefits. The portfolio of removals solutions employed should depend on local contexts, the co-benefits of removal methods and the needs of communities. For example, coastal areas and SIDS could focus on the restoration of blue carbon ecosystems such as mangroves and benefit from increased resilience to extreme weather events.


Restoring ecosystems such as mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, saltmarshes, or forests (biodiversity, increased resilience to extreme weather events).

  1. By 2030 we are scaling our removals to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere each year and storing it for up to 100 years:
  2. —Through improving forestry management through Reduced-Impact Logging for Climate (RIL-C), shifting plantations to more species-diverse, multi-age plantations or simply extending the average age of trees before harvest (biodiversity).
  3. —Through managing agricultural land through practices such as silvopastoralism, agroforestry, or regenerative agriculture (enhanced crop yields, increased livelihoods).
  4. —Through restoration of mangroves and seagrass meadows in the oceans. These capture CO2 through photosynthesis and can store it in their roots and sediments for thousands of years.
  5. —Through reforesting or aforesting marginal and degraded land, particularly in the tropics (improved biodiversity).
  6. By 2030 we are removing another 500 million tonnes of CO2 from the atmosphere each year and storing it for more than 100 years:
  7. —Through implementing Direct Air Carbon Capture and Storage, where ample renewable energy and storage for CO2 is available (job and skills creation, access to clean energy).
  8. —Through scaling Bioenergy with Carbon Captures and Storage where it does not impact food security, relying on agricultural and forest residues (energy production and reduction of agricultural waste).
  9. —Through applying biochar to agricultural lands (increased resilience to drought, improved crop yields).
  10. —Through growing our enhanced weathering capacity and applying powdered silicate rocks to agricultural lands (increased resilience to drought, improved crop yields).
  11. —Through storing carbon in products such as concrete or timber for construction (accessing price premiums on ‘green’ products).
  12. —Through cultivation of microalgae to remove CO2 through photosynthesis and store it for over 100 years in the deep-ocean and other ocean based carbon removal approaches (potentially improved health of ocean ecosystems).
  13. Carbon removal at the gigatonne scale costs less than $100/net metric tonne of CO2-equivalent by 2030.

How the market can influence change.

  1. Public and private payments for Carbon Dioxide Removal reach approximately $200 billion per annum by 2030. 20x more than the estimated $10bn per year supporting removals today.

The support required from government and industry.

  1. Capital investment in Carbon Dioxide Removal (i.e. in project demonstration, deployment and infrastructure development) averages at least $100 billion/year by 2030.

Visible, tangible support from governments and organisations.

  1. Policy priorities will differ according to the CDR method. For example, ecosystem restoration related methods primarily need better monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV), while methods requiring geological storage are in need of deployment incentives. For more early stage methods, research and development support is the highest priority. Generally, policy options can follow a sequential process as different policies will be required at different stages of each method's development (beginning with supporting enabling conditions, research and development and moving towards support for deployment and scaling).
  2. Policies provide robust governance and regulatory support frameworks on the following:
  3. —Through accounting and MRV Methods (Monitoring, Reporting, Verification): Formalised and widely-applied approaches to robust quantification of GHGs removed at both the individual project level, and regional level by a particular project, and reporting these results to a larger emissions accounting framework:
  4. —Through inventories: national governments adopt clear methodologies & rules to account for CDR in their national inventories and NDCs (perhaps motivated by distinct separate targets for emission reductions and removals), and UN-level guidance is developed to begin bringing these methodologies into interoperability and cohesion.
  5. —Through national and International Regulatory Standards on the overall integrity and quality of removals (including definitions of additionality, permanence, and environmental integrity of CDR solutions).
  6. —Through claims enforcement: guardrails and regulation of environmental claims made to consumers and the use of carbon credits for compensation claims, to ensure legitimacy and police fraud
  7. —Through liability Rules: Industry-wide insurance schemes, liability caps, and clear liability guidance for reversals or re-release of stored CO2
  8. —Through planning Rules: Rules to govern location of CDR facilities/projects, rights of local stakeholders and mitigation of local impacts.
  9. National policies and public funding provide support for CDR research, development, and demonstration:
  10. —Through research and pilot grants.
  11. —Through feasibility studies.
  12. —Through demonstration studies.
  13. National policies support CDR deployment:
  14. —Through public funding to reduce the cost of capital or operations for contractors or suppliers. Tax credits and/or subsidies for carbon dioxide removal.
  15. Infrastructure support through the development of industry clusters (to share infrastructure and efficiency gains) or publicly provided infrastructure (such as CO2 transport and storage infrastructure and networks).
  16. National policies support market development and the creation of CDR demand:
  17. —Through direct purchase and offtake agreements.
  18. —Through feed-in tariffs.
  19. —Through contracts for difference.
  20. —Through reverse auctions.
  21. —Through advanced market commitments.
  22. —Through demand subsidies.

How individuals and organisations can mobilise change.

  1. Civil society organisations describe how best to incentivise, govern and undertake carbon dioxide removals by focusing on societal values, interests and needs in local contexts. I.e. describe how to do removals responsibly* whilst focusing on climate justice and equity. *“accounting for societal values and interests in relation to which carbon dioxide removal approaches to incentivize, how they should be incentivized, and how they should be governed once incentivized.”
  2. Civil society organisations responsibly create knowledge, awareness, and demand for increasing carbon dioxide removal capacity across all key stakeholders.
  3. Civil society organisations accelerate CDR innovation through R&D funding and support.
  4. Civil society organisations draw critical attention to instances where carbon dioxide removal is being used as a substitute for reductions, or worse as predatory delay, rather than complementary to rapid decarbonisation.
  5. Civil society organisations lead the way in the development of a recognised standard for carbon dioxide removal, certifying its responsible use and upholding the highest quality and integrity standards.

Join these initiatives